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McKusick and Kowalski's "Fsck -- The UNIX File System Check Program" (1985) rehashes some details from the FFS paper before talking about corruption.

Note that all writes required to deallocate a block from an inode are done synchronously, and all directory operations are done synchronously, to prevent, for example, a block ever being referenced from two different inodes (no longer an automatically recoverable situation since you can't decide which it should belong to).

The rest of the paper is a list of the various sanity checks performed by fsck; mostly fairly obvious. There's no discussion of performance, which must be terrible--multiple passes through the whole filesystem seem to be required, and memory requirements for some of the calculations are probably unbounded.